1 MED CD-ROM Håkan Plith John Whitlam Kjell Weinius READ & PROCEED New Interactive Edition Texter och övningar För gymnasiets kurs B/steg 6 Med cd-rom APPIA
2 Håkan Plith John Whitlam Kjell Weinius READ & PROCEED NEW INTERACTIVE EDITION
3 Till lärare och elev READ & PROCEED NEW INTERACTIVE EDITION består av följande komponenter: textbok, audio-cd, interaktiv elev-cd samt lärarpärm. 1 TEXTBOKEN Innehåller sju tematiskt ordnade kapitel, som vart och ett innehåller en informativ text (facts) och ett utdrag ur en roman samt en hörförståelse (fiction). Samtliga texter inom respektive kapitel speglar alltså ett och samma tema. A Facts Den första texten i varje kapitel är en informativ text, där betoningen ligger på sakinnehållet och texten är avsedd främst för intensiv textbehandling. B Övningar Bland de olika övningarna intar ordbildningsläran en framträdande plats; systematiskt övas bl.a. prefix och suffix genom hela boken. Frasverb, ordfält, prepositionsövningar och idiomatiska uttryck förekommer också i varierande utsträckning i varje kapitel. C Grammatiska länkar Här ställs ett grammatiskt problem under debatt, och eleverna uppmanas att utifrån vissa givna fall dra sina egna slutsatser och därefter gå till Advanced Grammar Check för att kontrollera och öva vidare. D Realia IT-stöd För att skaffa sig mer information om respektive tema än vad som bjuds i själva textboken uppmanas eleverna att själva söka information kring ett givet antal näraliggande ämnesområden i uppslagsböcker, på cd-rom eller via Appias hemsida på Internet (www.studentlitteraur.se/appia). E Fiction Den andra texten i respektive kapitel är ett utdrag ur en av de romaner som ingår under punkt G nedan. F Hörförståelse I den hörförståelse som sedan följer presenteras ett senare utdrag ur samma roman som tidigare. I det här fallet får eleverna i uppgift att föreslå en tänkbar utveckling av händelseförloppet i romanens senare del. G Romanläsning Efter att ha läst hela Read & Proceed eller delar av boken skall eleverna välja att läsa en, två eller flera av de romaner som behandlas i vart och ett av de sju kapitlen. Till den ändan har varje roman försetts med ett antal studieuppgifter. Som en hjälp vid romanläsningen erbjuder Studentlitteratur -Appia också gloshäften till varje roman. 2 CD-AUDIO Samtliga kapiteltexter samt uppgifterna till hörförståelsen finns inspelade på tre cdskivor. 3 INTERAKTIV ELEV-CD Den medföljande cd-romen är fullt integrerad med textmaterialet och kan användas i skolan och på elevens egen hemdator.
4 Cd:n omfattar följande: Inspelningar av texterna. Eleven kan själv lyssna på alla texter och kan samtidigt välja att läsa, antingen i boken eller på skärmen. Uppspelning av ljudet styrs enkelt från skärmen. Många av orden i texterna är även klickbara i texten på skärmen. En musklick på ordet tar fram en översättning och i vissa fall även kommentarer och grammatikhänvisningar. Bokens styckeordlistor kan även övas i form av dra och släpp -övningar på cd:n. När man matchar orden rätt hörs uttalet. En komplett grammatik med regler, övningar och ljud (Grammar in Action III). Denna grammatik är baserad på reglerna i Advanced Grammar Check. Hörövningar. Kursens hörövningar finns också med, så att eleven kan lyssna i egen takt. Webblänkar. När datorn är uppkopplad på nätet når eleven en länksamling via förlagets server direkt från cd:n. Till varje kapitel finns en klickbar studieguide med bl.a. facit till hela materialet. sidor kan också användas som kapiteltest av de lärare som använder Read & Proceed i traditionell undervisning. Ett större sluttest på hela bokens intensiva delar ingår också. Som en service för dem som i en större grupp vill diskutera de problemorienterade grammatiksidor som ingår i varje kapitel i boken, finns dessa sidor också som stordiaunderlag i lärarmaterialet. För ytterligare träning av ordbildningsläran finns två sidor som delvis anknyter till Advanced Vocabulary Check. Facit till samtliga övningar och test finns som kopieringsunderlag. Lycka till med arbetet! Författarna. 4 LÄRARPÄRM I lärarpärmen finns, förutom tapescripts till samtliga hörförståelser, också Check Yourself-avsnitt till varje kapitel. Här kan eleverna kontrollera dels förståelsen av den intensiva texten (i form av modifierade cloze tests), dels de övningar som förekommer i anslutning till denna. Dessa
5 Contents CHAPTER FACTS GRAMMAR 1 Leadership 7 How the Leaders Led 8 Nouns in the plural 14 Progress, furniture 15 2 Northern Ireland 27 Northern Ireland Revisited 28 The Ritz 34 When were you born? 35 3 Global English 47 An English-Speaking World 48 Swedish det 54 The poor man the poor 55 4 Teenage Love 67 Only 17 and Already Pronouns 74 Parents 68 Tag questions 75 5 American Education 87 America History Swedish skall skulle 94 and Education 88 Word order 95 6 Eating Disorders 107 Anorexia Nervosa Scissors, stairs, etc. 114 and Bulimia 108 Love is blind New Family Patterns 127 One-Parent Families Infinitive or ing-form 134 in Britain 128 Contracted clauses 135 Word Creation Overview 147 Wordlist 148 Alphabetical Wordlist 153
6 REALIA FICTION LISTENING NOVEL World War II 16 The Experiment I 17 The Experiment II 22 The Wave 24 (from The Wave ) (by Morton Rhue) The United A Painful Decision I 37 A Painful Across the Kingdom 36 (from Across the Decision II 42 Barricades 44 Barricades ) (by Joan Lingard) The Commonwealth Marital Freedom I 57 Marital Freedom II 62 (Un)arranged 56 (From (Un)arranged Marriage 64 Marriage) (by Bali Rai) Love and A Positive Test I 77 A Positive Test II 82 Dear Nobody 84 Shakespeare s (from Dear Nobody ) (by Berlie Doherty) World 76 The United States 96 O Captain! O Captain! Dead Poets My Captain! I 97 My Captain! II 102 Society 104 (from Dead Poets (by N. H. Kleinbaum) Society ) Medicine 116 Terrorized Terrorized The Best Little by Food I 117 by Food II 122 Girl in the World 124 (from The Best Little (by S. Levenkron) Girl in the World ) Family Relation- Unexpected Unexpected About a Boy 144 ships 136 Relationships I 137 Relationships II 142 (by Nick Hornby) (from About a Boy )
7 Studentlitteratur Skola/Vuxenutbildning Box LUND Besöksadress: Åkergränden 1 Tfn: Kopieringsförbud Detta verk är skyddat av Lagen om upphovsrätt! Kopiering är förbjuden utöver lärares rätt att kopiera för undervisningsbruk enligt BONUS-avtal. BONUS-avtal tecknas mellan upphovsrättsorganisationer och huvudman för utbildningsordnare, t ex kommuner och högskolor/universitet. Förbudet gäller hela verket såväl som delar därav och inkluderar lagring i elektroniska medier, visning på bildskärm samt bandupptagning. Den som bryter mot Lagen om upphovsrätt kan enligt 53 åtalas av allmän åklagare och dömas till böter eller fängelse i upp till två år samt bli skyldig att erlägga ersättning till upphovsman/rättsinnehavare. Art.nr 7477 ISBN , 2001, 2003 Håkan Plith, John Whitlam, Kjell Weinius och Studentlitteratur AB Upplaga 3:1 Omslag: Henrik Hast Grafisk form: Werner Schmidt och Henrik Hast Redaktör: Peter Byström och Anky Josefson Bildredaktör: Ingela Lindqvist Omslagsfoto: JohnFoxx Images Illustrationer: Christina Nauckhoff Printed by Narayana Press, Denmark 2004
8 Leadership 1 CONTENTS FACTS How the Leaders Led GRAMMAR Nouns in the plural Progress, furniture, etc. REALIA World War II FICTION The Experiment I LISTENING The Experiment II NOVEL The Wave
9 8 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP FACTS How the Leaders Led On June 6, 1944, in World War II, the Allied Forces landed on the coast of Normandy in France in order to attack the Germans. The leader of these forces was General Eisenhower. Amid the smoke and screams, what made inexperienced, terrified men go forward on D-Day? PREPARING FOR WAR For General Eisenhower the troops were willing to make an exception. Unlike many high officers, he seemed to be no sadist. When he found something wrong in an inspection, it was likely to be the officers, not the men, he criticised. He treated soldiers like people with feelings, not criminals with something to hide. On June 5, 1944, the night before the invasion, he visited the paratroops who were gathering near their planes. As he walked from group to group, they were comforted by having someone give them attention. For many this was the last time in their short lives. What s your job, soldier? Ammunition bearer, sir. Where is your home? Pennsylvania, sir. Did you get those shoulders working in a coal mine? Yes, sir. Good luck to you tonight, soldier. A paratrooper who saw him frowning made him smile by saying,
10 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP FACTS Now quit worrying, General, we ll take care of this thing for you. Eisenhower watched a few take-offs and then walked slowly back to the headquarters. There were tears in his eyes. He knew, and the soldiers knew, what they were facing. The whole country knew on June 6 that something very serious, something that might fail, was taking place. All over America church bells tolled and in Columbus, Ohio, at 7:30 in the evening, all trams stopped for five minutes while people prayed in the streets. If the home front needed an arm to lean on, the boys on their way to the French coast needed it even more. Most were green troops, never before tested in battle. A colonel commanding an airborne battalion said to his men before they went on board their aircraft, Although I am not a religious man, I would like all of you to kneel with me in prayer and do not look down with a bowed head but look up, so that we can see God and ask His blessing and help in what we are about to do. (The colonel was killed the next day.) As some troops left they passed a priest standing in front of his church making the sign of the cross as each truck went by. ALMOST NOTHING WENT RIGHT The Germans had been fortifying the French coast for years. They had dug shelters and trenches to protect their machine guns and mortars. They had placed countless obstacles to stop landing-craft, installed miles of barbed wire and planted 4 million mines. Since the Germans couldn t be flanked, they would have to be surprised by a modern kind of movement, a vertical one. That was the reason for the attack the night before by the 13,000 paratroopers dropped from more than 800 planes. They were to land behind the Germans and support the landings. But almost nothing went right. The rough seas that persuaded the Germans that no landing could take place right then caused many surprises for the attackers. Soldiers legs were smashed, crushed between ships and landing-craft. Seventeen loaded landing-craft carrying more than 500 men were sunk by high waves on the way in, and many of the overloaded troops drowned. All the artillery sank, and so did all but five of the 32 floating tanks. Some of their crews did not escape, and their bones are still in their tanks on the sea bottom. The troops in the landing-craft had been given anti-seasickness pills, but their main effect was to cause sleepiness, and on the way in, the soldiers, packed in so tightly that they could hardly move, were as sick as dogs. Many were so scared that they lost control of their bladders and bowels. Leaders discovered that their water-soaked radios didn t work and that the noise of the bombardment prevented shouted orders from being heard at all. As the craft finally grounded and the men ran out, they found themselves not on the beach but in waist-deep, sometimes neckdeep water, facing machine-gun fire. Many were killed before leaving their boats. Men carrying explosives blew up and the lucky ones struggled through the red foam to crawl to the beach. MANY MEN CRIED If the landing on Utah Beach went much better than expected, Omaha was a catastrophe. Very little progress was made. For hours, instead of advancing according to schedule, soldiers lay on the beach, paralyzed by surprise and horror while the German artillery and mortars and machine guns pounded their bodies. Many men
11 10 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP FACTS 5 cried, many called for their mothers. In 10 minutes one rifle company of 205 men saw 197 of them killed or wounded, including every officer and sergeant. With ruined radios, soldiers ashore couldn t tell the ships to stop the further waves from landing on that terrible strip of sand, as one survivor calls it. LEADERSHIP After hours of motionless horror, what finally got them moving off that deadly beach? Leadership, of course but what is it? Did it take the form of example, commands, threats of punishment? The ground forces, when training leaders, like to use the image of a wet piece of spaghetti on a slippery surface. Push it from behind and it goes nowhere. You have to pull it from the front. But what if the leader shouts Follow me! and no one does? Why do men sometimes follow him, and shout enthusiastically too? The leader must have something called character. The followers must like him and want to be like him or want him to like them. When it s all over, they want him to clap them on the shoulder and say he s proud of them. Sometimes quite unemotional reasons will get them moving. At Omaha, one officer, sick of the carnage, stood up and shouted, Two kinds of people are staying on this beach, the dead and those who are going to die. That did it. In the next 24 hours 175,000 men and 50,000 vehicles came ashore. General Eisenhower was short on combat experience but not on imagination and sympathy. He knew beforehand that the invasion could easily fail, that the men who depended on his plan of attack could be murdered uselessly. After his painful decision, on the night of June 5, to give the Go signal regardless of the risky weather, he quietly wrote on a bit of notebook paper a brief statement to issue if D-Day should turn out to be a disaster: Our landings... have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops... If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt, it is mine alone. The troops were right about him. They respected him, and that s why, despite their fear, they did what he said had to be done. He was the leader and he followed a noble code, perhaps more common then than now: when you succeed, give all the credit to others; when you fail, take all the blame yourself. NEWSWEEK, MAY 23,
12 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP EXERCISES 11 A WORKING WITH THE TEXT Read the text and find the following words and phrases. Translate them into English and put them under the correct headline as they appear in the text. Headlines a) Preparing for war c) Many men cried b) Almost nothing went right d) Leadership Words and phrases 1 för general Eisenhower var trupperna 16 Omaha var en katastrof villiga att göra ett undantag 17 ytterst få framsteg gjordes 2 behandlade soldater som människor 18 förlamade av överraskning och skräck 3 sluta att oroa Er, General 19 strandremsa 4 tittade på några starter 20 timmar av orörlig skräck 5 kyrkklockor ringde 21 ledarskap 6 knäböja med mig i bön 22 ett stycke våt spaghetti 7 skyddsrum och skyttegravar 23 karaktär 8 oräkneliga hinder 24 klappa dem på skuldran 9 fallskärmstrupper 25 de som skall dö 10 den hårda sjön 26 saknade stridserfarenhet 11 de överlastade trupperna drunknade 27 smärtsamt beslut 12 sjösjukepiller 28 kort meddelande 13 spydde som katter 29 skuld eller fel 14 maskingevärseld 30 ädel lag 15 rött skum B SPEAKING Now that you have translated the words and phrases above, you should be able to retell the story using your notes. C DISCUSS It says in the text that The leader must have something called character. 1 Work in groups and list at least five qualities which you may look for in a leader. Rank them in order from one to five, where one is the quality you think is the most important. 2 One member from each group writes the list on the whiteboard. Compare your lists and discuss in class. Try to come up with one list which everybody can agree on. 3 Give at least three examples of good leaders, dead or alive. Give reasons for your choice!
13 12 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP EXERCISES D IDIOMS As sick as a dog If you are as sick as a dog, it means that you feel very sick. Combine a word from group a with a word from group b in the same way as sick (a) and dog (b) are used in the example above. Use these combinations to describe each person/animal in the sentences 1 10 below and when translating sentences Example: The soldier on board the ship couldn t stop vomiting. He was as sick as a dog. a blind bold cool dead deaf drunk gentle good heavy mad red slippery sober strong stubborn thin b bat beetroot brass cucumber doornail eel gold hatter judge lamb lead lord mule ox post rake Complete the following sentences. 1 My little brother is such a nice person. He is... 2 The wrestler was able to lift his opponent above his head. He was... 3 One of the soldiers was very outspoken and told the general that he didn t like him. He was... 4 Johnny couldn t hear a word. He was... 5 When Sam told Linda he loved her, she blushed all over. She was... 6 The breathalyser showed that the driver had no alcohol in his blood. He was... 7 Although the pen was lying on the desk right in front of Tina, she couldn t see it. She was... 8 The little dog had been hit by a car and showed no signs of life. It was... 9 Kessa had been on a diet for two months. She was The new teacher did a lot of crazy things in the classroom. He was... Translate the following sentences into English. 11 Min mamma blir sällan upprörd. Hon är lugn som en filbunke. 12 Kevin hade druckit för många öl. Han var full som en alika. 13 Brian ser stor och stark ut, men han är from som ett lamm. 14 Ben kommer inte att ändra sig. Han är envis som synden. 15 Mary håller med den hon sist talade med. Hon är hal som en ål. 16 Jag har aldrig varit så trött i hela mitt liv. Mina ögonlock kändes tunga som bly.
14 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP EXERCISES 13 WORD CREATION E Study the suffixes and their meanings in the box below. (See also page 147.) Suffix Meaning Example -er/-or den eller det som gör något (-are) (observe) observer (inspect) inspector -ist den som gör något (drama) dramatist F Use the suffixes -er/-or and make nouns from the following verbs: 1 lead 5 survive 9 govern 13 shop 2 imitate 6 visit 10 travel 14 open 3 print 7 compete 11 sail 15 act 4 employ 8 create 12 write 16 donate G What do the following persons do? 1 artist 4 dentist 7 scientist 2 cartoonist 5 novelist 8 psychiatrist 3 columnist 6 physicist 9 zoologist H PHRASAL VERBS Choose one of the phrases in the box to complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb. (Use a dictionary.) look after look at look back look down look down on look for look forward to look into look on look out look up look out for 1 I would like you all to kneel with me in prayer and don t just at the floor. 2 What a nice party! We re already the next invitation. 3 My sister has promised to our children while we are away on holiday. 4! There s a child crossing the road. 5 Linda tried not to the handsome new boy in the class. 6 The captain went up to the bridge to enemy ships. 7You had better these phrases in a dictionary. 8 The old admiral could on a long and successful career in the navy. 9 The newly married couple were a house to buy. 10 When Samuel had become rich, he his old friends who were still poor. 11 What you say sounds very odd. We ll have to the matter. 12 You should try to help the injured instead of just.
15 14 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP GRAMMAR Nouns in the plural A Study the compound nouns (sammansatta substantiv) in the box below. Try to explain the difference in making the plural of such nouns. Singular Plural 1 take-off Eisenhower watched a few take-offs. 2 sister-in-law My sisters-in-law are both from Wales. 3 woman driver Women drivers are said to drive carefully. B Study the rules on page 4 in Advanced Grammar Check! C Put the following compound nouns in the plural. Don t forget the rules! 1 baby-sitter (barnvakt) (Regel A1) 2 mother-to-be (blivande moder) (A2) 3 woman doctor (kvinnlig läkare) (A3) 4 brother-in-law (svåger) (A2) 5 man-servant (herrbetjänt) (A3) 6 sit-in (sittstrejk) (A1) 7Girl Scout (A.E. flickscout) (A1) 8 grown-up (vuxen) (A1)
16 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP GRAMMAR 15 Progress, furniture, etc A Compare the words printed in bold below. What is the grammatical difference between the Swedish and English words? 1 Mycket få framsteg gjordes. Very little progress was made. 2 De här möblerna är mycket gamla. This furniture is very old. 3Var är pengarna? Where is the money? 4 Han gav mig några goda råd. He gave me some good advice. In what way does this affect the translation of pronouns and verbs? 5 De här upplysningarna är mycket viktiga. This information is vital. 6 Hur går (=är) affärerna? How is business? B Study the rules on page 16 in Advanced Grammar Check! C Using the rules, translate the words in bold. 1 Föroreningarna i Östersjön var inte så allvarliga då som de är nu. The pollution of the Baltic not as serious then as now. 2 De där läxorna var lätta. homework easy. 3 Många framsteg har gjorts på detta område. progress been made in this field. 4 Dessa bevis är inte tillräckliga. evidence not enough.
17 16 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP REALIA World War II A Choose one of the following subjects and find information about it in an encyclopedia, on CD-ROM or on the Internet (www.studentlitteratur.se/appia) and present it to the class or a group in a four or five-minute talk. Work in pairs. 1 The Battle of Britain 9 Montgomery 2 Churchill 10 Mussolini 3 Concentration Camp 11 Operation Overlord 4 Ghetto 12 Pearl Harbor 5 Goebbels 13 Petain 6 Hiroshima 14 Quisling 7 Hitler 15 Stalin 8 Kamikaze 16 Yalta www B After the presentation everybody should be able to identify the following terms and names and link them to the right subject above. A Eisenhower I Propaganda B Warsaw J Germany divided C Dachau K KGB D Hawaii L Radar E Lebensraum M Harry S. Truman F Fascism N Suicide G Victory at all costs O 9 April, 1940 H Desert war P Vichy
18 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP FICTION 17 The Experiment I This story is based on a true incident that occurred in a high school history class in Palo Alto, California, in They were studying World War Two, and the film Ben Ross was showing his class that day was a documentary depicting the atrocities the Nazis committed in their concentration camps. In the darkened classroom the class stared at the movie screen. They saw emaciated men and women starved so severely that they appeared to be nothing more than skeletons covered with skin. People whose knee joints were the widest parts of their legs. Ben had already seen this film or films like it half a dozen times. But the sight of such ruthless inhumane cruelty by the Nazis still horrified him and made him feel angry. As the film rolled on, he spoke emotionally to the class: What you are watching took place in Germany between 1934 and It was the work of a man named Adolf Hitler, originally a menial labourer and house painter, who turned to politics after World War One. Germany had been defeated in that war, its leadership was at a low ebb, inflation was high, and thousands were homeless, hungry, and jobless. For Hitler it was an opportunity to rise quickly through the political ranks of the Nazi Party. He espoused the theory that the Jews were the destroyers of civilization and that the Germans were a superior race. Today we know that Hitler was a paranoid, a psychopath, literally a madman. In 1923 he was thrown in jail for his political activities, but by 1934 he and his party had seized control of the German government. Ben paused for a moment to let the students watch more of the film. They could see the gas chambers now, and the piles of bodies laid out like stove wood. The human skeletons still alive had the gruesome task of stackincident händelse occur [ə k ] inträffa documentary dokumentärfilm depict skildra atrocity [ə trɒsəti] grymhet, illdåd commit begå movie screen filmduk emaciated [I meisieitid] utmärglad starve svälta severe [si viə] allvarlig appear [ə piə] förefalla skeleton benrangel, skelett knee [ni ] joint knäled ruthless [ ru θləs] obarmhärtig, skoningslös inhumane [ Inhjυ mein] omänsklig cruelty grymhet horrify slå med fasa, uppröra emotional [I məυʃənl] känslosam originally [ə ridʒ(ə)n(ə)li] ursprungligen menial [ mi njəl] labourer okvalificerad arbetare defeat besegra be at a low ebb stå lågt i kurs rank led espouse [I spaυz] omfatta, hylla destroyer förstörare superior överlägsen, högre paranoid paranoid (en som lider av förföljelsemani) psychopath [ saikə(υ)p θ] psykopat literally bokstavligt seize [si z] gripa pile hög stove [stəυv] spis gruesome hemsk, ohygglig stack trava
19 18 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP FICTION 5 10 ing the dead under the watching eyes of the Nazi soldiers. Ben felt his stomach churn. How on God s earth could anyone make anyone else do something like that, he asked himself. He told the students: The death camps were what Hitler called his Final solution to the Jewish problem. But anyone not just Jews deemed by the Nazis as unfit for their superior race was sent there. They were herded into camps all over Eastern Europe, and once there they were worked, starved, and tortured, and when they couldn t work any more, they were exterminated in the gas chambers. Their remains were disposed of in ovens. Ben paused for a moment and then added: The life expectancy of the prisoners in the camps was two hundred and seventy days. But many did not survive a week. On the screen they could see the buildings that housed the ovens. Ben thought of telling the students that the smoke rising from the chimneys above the buildings was from burning human flesh. But he didn t. The expestomach mage churn vara i uppror (om mage) solution lösning deem döma unfit olämplig, ovärdig herd driva (boskap) torture [ tɔ tʃə] tortera exterminate utrota remain kvarleva dispose of slänga bort, göra sig av med oven [ vn] ugn add tillägga life expectancy medellivslängd survive överleva flesh kött
20 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP FICTION 19 rience of watching this film would be awful enough. Thank God man had not invented a way to convey smells through film, because the worst thing of all would have been the stench of it, the stench of the most heinous act ever committed in the history of the human race. The film was ending and Ben told his students: In all, the Nazis murdered more than ten million men, women, and children in their extermination camps. The film was over. A student near the door flicked the classroom lights on. As Ben looked around the room, most of the students looked stunned. Ben had not meant to shock them, but he d known that the film would. Most of these students had grown up in the small, suburban community that spread out lazily around Gordon High. They were the products of stable, middle-class families, and despite the violence-saturated media around them, they were surprisingly naive and sheltered. Even now a few of the students were starting to fool around. The misery and horror depicted in the film must have seemed to them like just another television programme. Robert Billings, sitting near the windows, was asleep with his head buried in his arms on his desk. But near the front of the room, Amy Smith appeared to be wiping a tear out of her eye. Laurie Saunders looked upset too. I know many of you are upset, Ben told the class. But I did not show you this film today just to get an emotional reaction from you. I want you to think about what you saw and what I told you. Does anyone have any questions? Amy Smith quickly raised her hand. Yes, Amy? Were all the Germans Nazis? she asked. Ben shook his head. No, as a matter of fact, less than ten per cent of the German population belonged to the Nazi Party. Then why didn t anyone try to stop them? Amy asked. I can t tell you for sure, Amy, Ross told her. I can only guess that they were scared. The Nazis might have been a minority, but they were a highly organized, armed, and dangerous minority. You have to remember that the rest of the German population was unorganized, and unarmed and frightened. They had also gone through a terrible period of inflation that had virtually ruined their country. Perhaps some of them hoped the Nazis would be able to restore their society. Anyway, after the war, the majority of Germans said they didn t know about the atrocities invent uppfinna convey förmedla, överföra stench stank heinous [ heinəs] avskyvärd act handling extermination camp förintelseläger flick on slå på stunned alldeles lamslagen suburban förortscommunity samhälle stable stabil despite trots violence-saturated [ s tʃəreitid] fylld (genomsyrad) av våld shelter skydda fool around larva sig misery [ mizəri] elände horror ohygglighet bury [ beri] begrava wipe torka upset upprörd population befolkning unarmed obeväpnad virtually [ v tjυəli] så gott som ruin ruinera, förstöra restore återuppbygga
21 20 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP FICTION Near the front of the room, a young black named Eric raised his hand urgently. That s crazy, he said. How could you slaughter ten million people without somebody noticing? Yeah, said Brad, the boy who had picked on Robert Billings before class began. That can t be true. It was obvious to Ben that the film had affected a large part of the class, and he was pleased. It was good to see them concerned about something. Well, he said to Eric and Brad, I can only tell you that after the war the Germans claimed they knew nothing of the concentration camps or the killings. Now Laurie Saunders raised her hand. But Eric s right, she said. How could the Germans sit back while the Nazis slaughtered people all around them and say they didn t know about it? How could they do that? How could they even say that? All I can tell you, Ben said, is that the Nazis were highly organized and feared. The behaviour of the rest of the German population is a mystery why they didn t try to stop it, how they could say they didn t know. We just don t know the answers. Eric s hand was up again. All I can say is, I would never let such a small minority of people rule the majority. Yeah, said Brad. I wouldn t let a couple of Nazis scare me into pretending I didn t see or hear anything Something bothered Ben Ross. He couldn t quite put his finger on it, but he was intrigued by the questions the kids in his history class had asked him after the film that day. It made him wonder. Why hadn t he been able to give the students adequate answers to their questions? Was the behaviour of the majority of Germans during the Nazi regime really so inexplicable? It made him wonder. Was this something even historians could not account for? Was it something one could only understand by being there? Or, if possible, by re-creating a similar situation...? MORTON RHUE, THE WAVE 25 urgently [ dʒ(ə)ntli] ivrigt slaughter [ slɔ tə] slakta pick on sb hacka på ngn obvious tydlig affect beröra, påverka be concerned about vara bekymrad över claim hävda, påstå behaviour beteende, sätt att reagera pretend låtsas intrigue [In tri ɡ] fängsla, väcka intresse adequate [ dikwət] tillfredsställande inexplicable [ Inek splikəbl] oförklarlig account for reda ut re-create skapa på nytt similar liknande
22 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP EXERCISES 21 I WORKING WITH THE TEXT Decide whether the following statements are true or false. 1 Mr Ross was a language teacher. 2 Teaching about the Nazis and World War II was always an unpleasant experience for Mr Ross. 3 The documentary showed when the Nazis invaded the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw. 4 Mr Ross told his students that Adolf Hitler had founded the Nazi party. 5 Mr Ross told his students that the smoke from the chimneys in the death camp came from burning human flesh. 6 Mr Ross told his students that the majority of the prisoners were dead after three months in the concentration camp. 7 Mr Ross told his students that it was not only Jews who were sent to the death camps. 8 All the students seemed to take the film very seriously. 9 Mr Ross had shown the documentary about Nazi atrocities to shock his students. 10 The majority of the students in Mr Ross history class were black. 11 Mr Ross was pleased that the documentary had made a profound impression on most of his students. 12 Eric and Brad did not agree about the Germans being unaware of Nazi atrocities. 13 Mr Ross told his students that only a minority of the Germans were members of the Nazi Party. 14 A few students could not understand the reaction of most Germans. 15 Mr Ross couldn t give satisfactory answers to all the questions the students asked. J DISCUSS With this text and your own knowledge of World War II, how would you explain the fact that some people still sympathize with Nazi ideas?
23 22 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP LISTENING The Experiment II K BEFORE LISTENING Mr Ross decided to run an experiment in his history class to give the students a taste of what life in Nazi Germany might have been like. How do you think Mr Ross carried out this experiment? Look at the picture and go through the wordlist before you listen to the tape. ultimately i sista hand community gemenskap achieve [ə tʃi v] uppnå allegiance [ə li dʒ(ə)ns] lojalitet, trohet accomplish uträtta ensure garantera stand at attention stå i givakt previous [ pri vjəs] föregående single-mindedness ensidig hängivenhet obedience [ə bi djəns] lydnad creepy läskig compete tävla, konkurrera common gemensam cause sak conceive [kən si v] föreställa (sig) equal [ i kw(ə)l] jämlike exclude utesluta recruit värva pledge lova (högtidligt) conclude avsluta intend ha för avsikt, tänka review [ri vju ] gå igenom (på nytt) assignment [ə sainmənt] uppgift announce meddela be startled bli häpen (överraskad) corny töntig testimonial vitsord subconsciously [ s b kɒnʃəsli] omedvetet salute hälsning chant [tʃɑ nt] skandera prompt mana på confident säker (på att)
24 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP EXERCISES 23 L AFTER LISTENING Tick the correct alternative. 1 Mr Ross told his students that of the three keywords... a) action was the most important. b) discipline was the most important. c) community was the most important. 2 Laurie, one of the students,... a) felt uncomfortable about what was going on in the group. b) felt a unity and high energy she d never felt before, c) disliked Mr Ross for his singlemindedness. 3 Mr Ross told his students that they... a) would achieve more if they cooperated. b) would learn faster by competing against each other. c) would not have to work hard to succeed. 4 To become a member of The Wave you had to... a) know a student in Mr Ross history class. b) demonstrate a good knowledge of history. c) know its rules and promise to keep to them. 5 Mr Ross told his students... a) to seek new members for The Wave. b) not to turn students from other classes on to The Wave. c) to give The Wave salute whenever they met outside the classroom. 6 David thought that... a) The Wave might be a good name for their football team. b) the spirit of The Wave might be of use to their football team. c) The Wave could help them recruit new players for their football team. 7 George Snyder, one of the students, stood up and told Mr Ross that he had a feeling of... a) being part of something great. b) being excluded from the group. c) not being equal to the rest of the class. 8 When Mr Ross heard the students testimonies about The Wave he felt that he... a) had to go on with the day s classwork leaving The Wave for a while. b) would disappoint his students if he stopped the experiment. c) would get into trouble if he went on with the experiment. 9 When the students gave the salute and chanted the motto of The Wave spontaneously, Mr Ross... a) realized that he had lost control of the experiment. b) felt that he still had control of the experiment. c) was frightened that the students might act on their own. M DISCUSS The texts you ve just read and listened to show how the powerful forces of group pressure can persuade people to join certain movements, give up their individual rights and even hurt others. Give examples from different areas of life.
25 24 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP NOVEL The Wave When Ben Ross shows his students a film about Nazi Germany and the persecution of the Jews, they can t believe it could happen again. So Ben experiments with a new disciplinary system in an attempt to show students how powerful group pressure can be. To his surprise his pupils respond to his orders with unusual enthusiasm and before long The Wave sweeps through the entire school. Only Laurie Saunders and a few others are suspicious of the symbol, slogans and salutes and recognize the violent undercurrents of The Wave but can they stop it before it s too late? Ask your teacher for The Wave by Morton Rhue and you will have an interesting reading experience.
26 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP NOVEL 25 INDIVIDUAL WORK GROUP WORK A B Arrange the extracts from The Wave on page 26 in the right order as they appear in the book. Write a summary of the plot of the novel using about 1,000 words. A When you have read the whole novel, ask some of your classmates to prepare five questions each about The Wave. As they have not read the novel, they should start by rereading the text entitled The Experiment I. C D E Which of the extracts on page 26 do you think best reflects the main conflict of the novel? Give the reasons for your choice. Describe what has happened just before and just after that extract. The names of some characters appear in italics in the extracts on page 26. Describe what kind of people these characters really are and the relationships between them once you have read the whole novel. After you have finished reading the novel, imagine you are one of the characters and write what you think might happen after the story has ended. Start like this: I am XX and after the final scene in the book I... B C Hand out your written summary to the group and let your friends read it and come up with suggestions on how to arrange the extracts on the next page in the right order as they appear in the book. As the person in charge of the group s work you may give them some useful hints. After holding a discussion you may have to rewrite your summary if it does not provide enough information. Get your friends in the group to discuss which of the extracts on page 26 they think best reflects the main conflict of the novel. Ask them to give reasons for their choice. After a short discussion you should reveal your own expert opinion. Describe what has happened just before and just after that extract and why you have chosen a certain extract. D Get your friends to discuss what kind of people they have come across in italics in the extracts they have read. After some time you must be prepared to describe what kind of people they really are and the relationship between them as you see it. E Start a discussion in the group about what might happen to the characters in italics after the story has ended.
27 26 CHAPTER 1 LEADERSHIP NOVEL EXTRACTS FROM THE NOVEL A The principal paused momentarily and then said, But that s not what I m concerned about, Ben. I m concerned about the students. This Wave thing seems too open-ended for my liking. I know you haven t broken any rules, but there are limits. I m completely aware of that, Ben insisted. You have to understand that this experiment can t go any further than I let it go. The whole basis for The Wave is the idea of a group willing to follow their leader. And as long as I m involved in this, I assure you it can t get out of hand. B Most of the members of the football team were there by this time, and as David looked around at their faces he could see that they were interested. Okay, said one. What do we do? David hesitated for a moment. What they could do was The Wave. But who was he to tell them? He d only learned of it the day before himself. Suddenly he felt someone nudging him. Tell them, Eric whispered. Tell em about The Wave. C David and Laurie looked up to find Amy Smith and Brian Ammon, the quarterback, both heading for their table from opposite directions. What do you mean you were here first? Brian asked. Well, I meant I wanted to be here first, Amy replied. Meaning to be first doesn t count, Brian said. Besides, I have to talk to Dave about football. And I have to talk to Laurie, Amy said. D It was incredible, Ben Ross thought as he walked towards the auditorium. Ahead of him, two of his students sat at a small table in front of the auditorium doors, checking membership cards. Wave members were streaming into the auditorium, many carrying Wave banners and signs. Ross couldn t help thinking that before the advent of The Wave it would have taken a week to organize so many students. Today it had taken only a few hours. He sighed. So much for the positive side of discipline, community, and action. He wondered, if he was successful in de-programming the students from The Wave, how long it would be before he d begin seeing sloppy homework again. He smiled. Is this the price we pay for freedom? E The rest of the class agreed. As they got into the correct order, they couldn t help noticing that Robert was at the head of the line. The new head of the class, someone whispered as they waited nervously for their teacher to give them the sign. Ben snapped his fingers and the column of students moved quickly and quietly into the room. As the last student reached his seat, Ben clicked the stopwatch off. He was smiling. Sixteen seconds. F Besides, David said, Laurie isn t breaking any rule. If she was really against The Wave she would be, Robert said. The rest of the table became silent, surprised that Robert had said anything. Some of them weren t even used to hearing his voice, he usually said so little. What I mean is, Robert said nervously, the whole idea of The Wave is that the people in it have to support it. If we re really a community, we all have to agree.