Chapter 18 The Kyrktorp Site

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1 Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden Chapter 18 The Kyrktorp Site Eva Olsson, Urve Miller and Jan Risberg

2 The Swedish National Heritage Board The Contract Archaeological Service Central Unit Instrumentvägen 19 SE HÄGERSTEN Phone Fax The Swedish National Heritage Board The Contract Archaeological Service, Central Unit ISBN Lantmäteriverket, SE GÄVLE. Dnr L1999/3. Godkänd från sekretessynpunkt för spridning. Lantmäteriverket (dnr /2167).

3 Contents Preconditions...5 Topography...5 Prehistoric Remains in the Surroundings...5 Previous Finds and Investigations...6 Prehistoric Environment...6 Course of the Investigation...7 The Special Field Survey and the Exploratory Phosphate Survey in The test excavations...10 Area Local Topography...10 Aims, Choices of Methods and Practical Procedure Results...12 Area Local Topography...15 Aims, Choices of Methods and Practical Procedure...16 Results...18 A Study of Phosphate Values and Finds at the Kyrktorp Site...21 Introductory Quaternary Geological Studies...22 Preconditions and Earlier Investigations...22 The Present Studies...22 Summary...25 THe kyrktorp excavations...26 Introduktion...26 Kyrktorp område 8W...27 Lokal topografi...27 Den arkeologiska undersökningen...27 Tillvägagångssätt...29 Sammanfattning och inledande tolkning...31 Resultat...31 Diskussion och tolkning...75 Quaternary Stratigraphical Investigations...88 Studies at Kyrktorp Subarea 8W...88 Micro-particle Studies at the Kyrktorp Valley Strait...92 Evidence from Kyrktorp Subarea 8W and the Kyrktorp Valley Strait...93 Discussion and Interpretation...93 The Date of the Litorina 3 Transgression...94 Traces of a Contemporary Shore Line, Short-termed Sea-level Rise or the Litorina 4 transgression?...94 A Model of Shore Processes and Shore-bound Human Activities at Kyrktorp Subarea 8W...96 The Kyrktorp Hill-fort...97 Background...97 Aims and Choice of Methods...98 Practical Procedure...99 Results...99 Results and Interpretation The Investigations of Area Kyrktorp Subarea 9B Local Topography The Excavation The Preliminary Archaeological Excavation The Excavation Summary and Preliminary Interpretation Results of the 1986 and 1989 Excavations...107

4 Archaeological and Geological Investigations of the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen Introduction Potential Information of the Fen Aims of the Investigations The Trench Investigation Discussion and Interpretation The Sediment Core Investigations Results and Interpretations of the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen studies Kyrktorp Subarea 9A Local Topography Course of the Excavation Results of the Excavations Concluding Discussion Area The Kyrktorp Site Environmental setting Archaeological results and interpretation Results Categories of Finds The Date of the Kyrktorp Site The Small Kyrktorp Site Compared to the Large Korsnäs Site Interpretation Human use of the Kyrktorp Site over Time, as Seen From the Archaeological Sources Phase 1: Middle Mesolithic Phase 2: Late Mesolithic Phase 3: Late Mesolithic Early Neolithic Phase 4: Early Neolithic Middle Neolithic Phase 5: Middle Neolithic Late Neolithic Phase 6: Early Bronze Age Middle Bronze Age Phase 7: Late Bronze Age Early Roman Iron Age Phase 8: Late Iron Age Historic Times Phase 9: Recent Times Geological Results and Interpretation The Course of Shore Displacement in the Kyrktorp/Korsnäs Area Vegetation History of the Kyrktorp/Korsnäs Area Human use of the Kyrktorp/Korsnäs Area Over Time, as Seen From the Geological Sources Human use of the Kyrktorp Site Joint Histories Phase 1: Middle Mesolithic (c BP) Phase 2: Late Mesolithic ( BP) Phase 3: Late Mesolithic Early Neolithic ( BP) Phase 4: Early Middle Neolithic ( BP) Phase 5: Middle Neolithic Late Neolithic ( BP) Phase 6: Early and Middle Bronze Age ( BP) Phase 7: Late Bronze Age Early Iron Age ( BP) Phase 8: Late Iron Age Historic Times ( BP) Phase 9: Recent Times (200 BP Present) Two Sides of the Kyrktorp Site Complementing Histories Comments on Complementary Approaches Administrative Data Appendix 18:A Appendix 18:B Appendix 18:B Appendix 18:B TABLES Figures Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden

5 The Kyrktorp Site Eva Olsson, Per Gustafsson, Sven Karlsson, Britta Kihlstedt, Christina Lindgren, Urve Miller, Jan Risberg, Ann Vinberg, Agneta Åkerlund Preconditions Eva Olsson Topography The Kyrktorp Site, RAM no. 448 in Grödinge parish, is located c. 25 km southwest of Stockholm and 1.5 km southwest of the Smällan site (cf. Fig. 1:1). It is situated in a relatively small fissure valley that runs northeast southwest, c. 0.8 km south of the Lake Malmsjön, which belongs to a larger valley system. The site lies on a western extension of the Uppsala Esker, which appears to be relatively thin in the area (Möller in Möller & Stålhös 1969:72) and contains many kettle holes. In the area around the site the soil types consist of till, glacifluvial sand and silt and, in depressions, glacial clay and post-glacial peat. The bedrock of the area is composed of gneiss and gneiss-granites (Stålhös in Möller & Stålhös 1969). In the valley southeast of the site the Lake Kvarnsjön is situated, and northeast of this lies the Lake Brudträsket (named Getryggen on the map). Brudträsket is a deep kettle hole lake, which today has no visible outlet. The isolation threshold has been established to 23.6 m a.s.l. (Risberg 1988b:210). The road southwards to the Grödinge church runs through the valley. The terrain west of the road is hilly, with many small promontories, and mires built up in the depressions, probably smaller kettleholes. East of the road is a large rock formation, the Husby Hammar, with relatively, steep slopes down towards the valley. The higher elevations are forested today, with conifers dominating, primarily Picea abies (spruce) and Pinus sylvestris (pine). The Kyrktorp croft is in the north western part of the valley (Fig. 18:1). According to the historical maps most of the cultivated fields have been located in the valley (LMV A34-26:1). In the forest west of the road, however, traces of several small fields surrounded by ditches are visible. The mires in the west have been drained, probably in connection with modern spruce cultivation. There are many small forest roads within the area. The planned route of the railway line crossed the valley in an east western direction south of the Kyrktorp croft (Fig. 18:2). Prehistoric Remains in the Surroundings The Korsnäs Site is located approximately 0.3 km northeast of the Kyrktorp Site, directly north of the Lake Brudträsket (RAM no. 447, cf. Fig. 18:1). Parts of this site were excavated in 1933 and 1970, resulting in many finds from the Pitted Ware Culture (Olsson et al. 1994). There are also two Neolithic sites registered in cultivated land west of this, at Malmsjö, around km northwest of the Kyrktorp Site (RAM nos. 549, and 550). Findings from these sites include a battle-axe, flint tools, Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden 5

6 polishing stones and pottery (RAM no. 549) as well as thick-butted axes, polishing stones, hammerstones and runners (RAM no. 550). The closest site dated to the Mesolithic is the Sjövreten site (RAM no. 526, Welinder 1977a), around 1 km northeast of the Kyrktorp Site. The Kyrktorp Site is peripheral to the known regions of Iron Age occupation (cf. chap. 2B). The closest remains, situated c. 0.6 km south of Kyrktorp, are occasional graves and a couple of cemeteries (RAM nos.61, 70, 66). Some of these graves probably date to the Early Iron Age, i.e. the cemetery RAM no. 70. Two graves were excavated here in 1936 and yielded cleaned, burnt bones (Westin 1944:42). The remains in these parts are situated close to the Litorina shore and close to what could be a possible harbour site. Northwest of Kyrktorp, around the Malmsjö farm, there are recorded a couple of small cemeteries with mounds and round stonesettings (RAM nos. 44, 475, 476). An isolated stone setting is situated at the hilltop immediately east of the site (RAM no. 372). Previous Finds and Investigations The exploitation area was immediately south of the registered site at the Kyrktorp croft. Finds of Stone Age character had also been made further to the Southeast. The site was discovered in 1933, when Ivar Schnell found pottery in a field next to the Kyrktorp croft, west of the road (ATA no. 3014/33, see Fig. 18:1). The find spot lay on a relatively steep eastern slope. The pottery was interpreted as Middle Neolithic, belonging to the so-called Pitted Ware Culture. The pottery consisted of sherds with both porous and dense ware, decorated mostly with a herring bone motif, and could be assigned to the phase Fagervik III (Bagge 1951). No excavation was conducted, but a phosphate map of the field and the slope around it, especially to the north, was prepared. High values, >100 P, were measured on the slope within a c metres large area, at altitudes between c. 40 and 28 m a.s.l. This phosphate study was later used as an indication of the site being shore bound and at which altitude above the Litorina Sea it was situated (Schnell 1944, G. Arrhenius 1945, Löfstrand 1974). At the first field survey Schnell s find spot was recorded and given RAM no During the second survey in 1981, no finds were made in the dense vegetation. However, an area south of the spot of Schnell s find was also marked in the map as a probable site location. The find spot was situated north of the planned route of the railway line and the probable site location within it. Southeast of the planned railway line occasional pieces of quartz debitage had been found on a southern slope at around 40 m a.s.l., east of the road (S.-G. Broström pers. comm. 1985, see Fig. 18:1). Prehistoric Environment During the Mesolithic Middle Neolithic the valley of the registered site formed a strait and later a bay. The remains of this bay exist today as Lake Kvarnsjön in the southeast and Lake Brudträsket in the north. The steep topography meant that changes in sea level led to relatively small 6 Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden

7 changes in the amount of usable land. When the sea shore was between 44 and 38 m a.s.l. a smaller area suitable for occupation existed in the north western part of the valley, situated at a sheltered bay (Fig. 18:3) and also in the south eastern part, at the spot of the quartz finds. Later, during the Middle Neolithic the amount of usable land increased somewhat with access to relatively steep slopes on both sides of the then narrow bay. The type of finds from 1933 (Pitted Ware pottery) and the altitude of that find location (Miller & Robertsson 1981, Miller in Brunnberg et al. 1985) indicated an activity area relatively close to the shore during the Middle Neolithic (Fig. 18:3). The valley west of the recorded site consisted during the Mesolithic of a slope down towards a smaller bay to the southwest, which was well sheltered by low, steep-sided hills (Fig. 18:3). The bay would have become isolated from the sea as the sea level sunk to below 40 m a.s.l. at the beginning of the Neolithic, c BP (Miller in Brunnberg et al. 1985). The subsequent Litorina 3 transgression might have reached the basin and reconnected it with the sea. After the Neolithic the area was not in direct contact with the sea anymore. The nearby Korsnäs Site was during the Middle Neolithic situated at a spit or at a saddle position, between two narrow straits, while the Kyrktorp Site was located by the western strait in an inner archipelago (Fig. 2:9). Course of the Investigation Prior to the construction of the railway, the archaeological site was investigated in several stages. The studied parts of the site have been called (from east to west) Kyrktorp subareas 8E and 8W, the Kyrktorp hill-fort (RAM no. 582), Kyrktorp subareas 9B, 9A:1 4, 9D and Kyrktorp 9C/ the Svalsta site (RAM no. 589) (Fig. 18:4). The excavation areas were located at altitudes between 60 and 15 m a.s.l. A special field survey and phosphate survey were undertaken in 1985 (Elfstrand & Olsson 1985, Elfstrand et al. 1985). Test excavation of the exploitation area was carried out in 1986 (Kyrktorp area 8E W, 9B, 9A:1). The investigations of the parts of the archaeological site discovered during the test excavation and coming within the scope of the new railway line was carried out in 1986 and 1987 (Kyrktorp 8W, the Kyrktorp hill-fort, Kyrktorp 9B, 9A:1, Kyrktorp Eastern Fen Trench). During , preliminary archaeological excavations and excavations were carried out prompted by the changes of specific details in the plans for the railway construction project (Kyrktorp subareas 9B, 9A:2 4, 9D, Kyrktorp 9C/Svalsta). The Kyrktorp 9C/Svalsta site and Kyrktorp 9D are reported separately (Vinberg 1995:4, Färjare & Hammar 2000). Geological surveys and investigations of sedimentary basins in the surroundings were carried out in Geological investigations were also carried out within the excavation areas in 1986, 1987 and in 1989 (the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen Trench, Kyrktorp subarea 8W, Kyrktorp Valley Strait and the Kyrktorp 9C/Svalsta site). See Fig. 18:5. Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden 7

8 The Special Field Survey and the Exploratory Phosphate Survey in 1985 Eva Olsson, Ann Vinberg In 1985, before the construction of the railway, a special field survey of the area was undertaken, since finds had been made previously and since the area appeared to contain several likely site locations (Elfstrand & Olsson 1985, see also chap. 1). No observations were made in the valley in the area of Schnell s earlier find (named area 8) at this time (see Fig. 18:4). During the survey, however, finds were made in root disturbances in three spots in an area west of the recorded site (see Fig. 18:4). This newly discovered part of the site was named area 9. Artefacts were found in varied locations, which consisted of a small saddle/pass between hills at an altitude of c. 50 m a.s.l. and the slopes of a depression further west at c m a.s.l. In the depression, artefacts were found on different parts of a south southwest slope. The soil was sandy and sloped down towards what is today a fen in the south and southwest. During soil probing in the area, sooty and dark soil discolorations were observed at different depths beneath the surface. Besides quartz debitage, the artefacts consisted of undecorated pottery (only dense ware) of general prehistoric type. The area was interpreted as one or several likely site locations the temporal placement of which was, at that time, hard to determine. The route of the railway line crossed the slope and certain parts of the fen in an east west direction. Area 8 and area 9 were separated topographically by a large hill, which reached an altitude of 60 m a.s.l. Area 8 and area 9 were north of the hill connected by the small saddle/pass which ran in an east west direction between hill outcrops. South of the hill area 9 sloped steeply towards the east and area 8. Both the pass and the area south of the hill were connected topographically more to area 9 than area 8, so the test excavations of these parts are dealt with under these sections (see pg. 14 and 9 below). In order to localise and delimit parts of the site having high phosphate values, a phosphate survey was conducted (Elfstrand et al and chapter 15). The phosphate survey done in the 1930s, of limited parts of the site is only recorded in the form of an isopleth map with no information of sampling interval or depth given (Schnell 1944:11). The map is also somewhat difficult to orient with modern maps. This map thus needed to be supplemented and expanded. The recent survey was done in a c metres area within and connected to RAM no. 448, as well as in areas west of it (areas 8 and 9). A total of 574 samples were taken from this area. The mean value for these samples is 58 P and the median is 18 P. The minimum value is 2 P and the maximum value is 748 P (see Appendix 15A). The phosphate survey revealed, above all, two places with extremely high phosphate values: in area 8 west of the road and in the north eastern part of area 9, at the transition between the pass and the depression to the west (Fig. 18:6). The highest phosphate values in area 8 were observed on the south eastern slope west of the road, c m a.s.l. The area with very high phosphate values (>100 P ) was c metres large (NE SW). 8 Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden

9 Within this area there were two large parts with extremely high phosphate values (>300 P ), in the northern and southern part of the area. Smaller parts and isolated spots with extremely high values also occurred between these. The northern phosphate concentration was located adjacent to the spot where Schnell had found pottery and was not delimited to the north. This concentration also stands out in the earlier phosphate map (Schnell 1944:11). In both maps there are distinct increases in phosphate values (<200 P ) along and above the metres contour line, especially in the area northeast of Schnell s find spot. The route of railway line crossed the area with high phosphate values in an east west direction between the northern and the southern phosphate concentrations. East of the road the phosphate values were low, with the exception of isolated values in the previously cultivated area nearest the road (maximum value 53 P ). High values >58 P (max. 211 P ) occurred in the north eastern part of area 9, at the transition between the depression and the saddle. The area with high values was c metres and consisted of a small pass between promontories, which opened up on the southwest slope to the west. The altitudes were between 50 and 45 m a.s.l. Phosphate values on the southwest slope were mostly not high (18 58 P ), with similar values scattered in the south eastern part of the area. The western parts of the area had low values (<18 P ). Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden 9

10 The test excavations Area 8 Eva Olsson, Ann Vinberg Local Topography Area 8, the narrow valley, was delimited on the west, north and east by hills. To the south, northwest and northeast there were no natural boundaries. The area was situated at an altitude of between 50 and 20 m a.s.l. The vegetation NNW of the railroad track consisted of spruce forest. In other areas the forest had been cleared, and grass and shrubs dominated. The subarea east of the road was called 8E and the subarea west of the road 8W (Fig. 18:7). The topography within Kyrktorp subarea 8E was made up of slopes with a north western south eastern exposure, lying at altitudes between 30 and 20 m a.s.l. Kyrktorp subarea 8W consisted of partly steep eastern slopes below the hill. On the slopes there were several more or less distinctly developed plateaux, at altitudes between 36 and 25 m a.s.l. To the south the topography was dominated by slopes with a south eastern exposure and with a marked plateau at c m a.s.l, and a smaller plateau at a little over 36 m a.s.l. Conspicuous elements of the topography in the northern part of the subarea were relatively steep southern and south eastern slopes, at c m a.s.l., bounded by hills to the north. At the centre of the subarea, at m a.s.l., there was a freshwater spring. The middle part of the subarea, where the railroad was planned, sloped down, in part from the west, but also from the south and gently from the north, towards the centre and formed a shallow basin, shielded from the wind. It lay at m a.s.l. Within this part the topographical variation which was observed during the field survey led to a grouping of different work zones during the excavation (see Fig. 18:5). The upper zone was located furthest to the west and highest up, close to the hill, at c m a.s.l. Within this zone there were two small plateaux with a slight slope between them. The lower plateau, at c m a.s.l., was around 200 m 2 and the higher, at just above 35 m a.s.l., was c. 130 m 2. The part nearest the hill was very rocky, with many boulders, commonly 1 2 metres in size. Most of them lay close to the surface. The total area of the zone was c m 2. The slope zone, located below and east of the upper zone, was relatively steep and lay at m a.s.l. In the south there was a strip with many boulders. The zone was c metres wide, narrowest and steepest in the north, and covered an area of around 500 m 2. The lower zone was located furthest down and furthest east, at c m a.s.l., and was bounded to the west by the steep slope zone. In the northern part there was a small plateau at c m a.s.l., which in the east, north and west was surrounded by rocky terrain. The southern part of the zone sloped towards the southeast. The lower zone covered c. 600 m Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden

11 Soil types consisted of glacial gravel in the western part of Kyrktorp subarea 8W. Further down the slope in the eastern part of Kyrktorp subarea 8W and also in Kyrktorp subarea 8E, till dominated. Nearest the road, within both subareas, the soil consisted of fine sand (Möller in Möller & Stålhös 1969). Boulders were found primarily near the hills and some of these had eroded and fallen down from the hillside, probably in modern times. Within the area there were traces of recent land use. In the western part of subarea 8E, a smaller road ran north south from the main road in the northwest. Parallel with this, c. 10 metres to the east, were traces of another road, no longer in use. In the north western part of the area were traces of an abandoned agricultural field, with a terrace edge to the east. The pottery from 1933 had been found in this field. Aims, Choices of Methods and Practical Procedure Our view after the field survey and the phosphate survey was that there were clear indications (artefacts and high phosphate values) of a Middle Neolithic, Pitted Ware site in the area west of the road. Our general goals before test excavation were to gain an understanding of the extent and intensity of use of the prehistoric activity area. In order to be able to assess the exploitation area in connection to its surroundings, areas within and outside of the route of the railway line were tested. We also related the test excavations to the results of the phosphate survey. The thickness of strata with finds and cultural layers, as well as qualitative and quantitative data on features and artefacts were viewed as important information. The features found were excavated within the test squares in order to get an understanding of their character. The relation of the site to a possible shore line location was of special interest, since the possible shore bound position of the Pitted Ware culture sites have been extensively discussed (see Löfstrand 1974:4 22, ). In order to fulfil the aims we excavated test squares within and outside the route of the railway line. The squares were located in areas with different phosphate values, altitudes above present sea level and topographical position. In order to determine whether the low phosphate values in Kyrktorp subarea 8E could be explained by the fact that the area had not been used or the activities had not produced phosphate, test squares were placed more densely here than within Kyrktorp subarea 8W. The most frequent artefact group, pottery, was used to study spatial patterning and stratigraphy more closely. The test excavation was conducted by the manual digging of test squares, size 1 m 2 each (Fig. 18:8). Of the total of 40 test squares, 20 were placed within the exploitation area (5 000 m 2 ), the excavated area making up c. 4 of it. The additional 20 squares were placed north and south of the planned route of the railway line (see Fig. 18:5). The squares were excavated by hand in five centimetre thick artificial strata (A.S.) and the soil was sieved (see Appendix 18A). Artefacts, ecofacts and soil samples for phosphate and trace element analysis were collected from the test squares. Charcoal from the features was collected and determined as to species and internal age and radiocarbon dated (see pg. 26 chap. 5, 12). In Kyrktorp subarea 8E, within a metre large area east of the road, 13 of these test squares were excavated, most of them within the Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden 11

12 route of the railway line. The squares lay at an altitude between c. 29 and 21 m a.s.l., primarily on the western slope. The 27 test squares within Kyrktorp subarea 8W lay within a c metres large area. The test squares were a maximum of 70 metres south and 90 metres north of the railroad track. In the southern and central part of Kyrktorp subarea 8W 19 of these test squares were excavated at altitudes between 36 and 24 m a.s.l., on different plateaux as well as in more or less marked east south eastern slopes. In the north part of Kyrktorp 8W eight of the test squares were excavated. They were placed in the area, which showed extremely high phosphate values at altitudes between c. 38 and 28 m a.s.l. Three of the test squares lay within the recent agricultural field and the others were on the south south eastern slope below the hill to the north. Within Kyrktorp subarea 8W we chose to use an independent grid (A/B) within the route of the railway line: it was oriented perpendicular to a tentative prehistoric shore line. In other parts of area 8 the municipal grid was used. Results Ground Conditions Soil types within Kyrktorp subarea 8E, as determined in the field by the archaeologists, were dominated by till and sandy, stony soils with exception of the area furthest to the southwest, where finer sediments such as silt and clay were found. In four test squares in the north part of the area a layer of gyttja-clay with mollusc shells was encountered at an altitude between 25 and 23 m a.s.l. Kyrktorp subarea 8W was dominated by stony, silty till. In a couple of test squares in the south, at high altitudes, as well as in the lower zone within the route of the railway line, fine-grained sediments and a complex stratigraphy were found. Otherwise, within the route of the railway line sand dominated in the upper zone and in the slope zone. A layer with shells (including the blue mussel, Mytilus edilus) was found in a sandy layer one test square on the boundary between the slope zone and the lower zone. Disturbed layers were found in the recent field as well as in the area north of it. The humus layer within subarea 8E and subarea 8W was metres thick, but up to 0.9 metres thick in the recently cultivated field within subarea 8W. Categories of Finds A sample of the pottery, quartz debitage and all the flint and greenstone axe artefacts were specially recorded in accordance with aims for the special analysis presented earlier (see chap. 6 9). The burnt bones, carbonised plant remains and a sample of the charcoal have been identified to species. Within Kyrktorp subarea 8E only isolated prehistoric finds were recovered, consisting of an edge fragment of a polished greenstone axe and some quartz debitage (see Table 18:1). Within Kyrktorp subarea 8W, primarily pottery, quartz debitage and debitage from unidentified rocks types, as well as a small amount of burnt bones were recovered (Table 12 Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden

13 18:1). Porous ware was somewhat more common than dense ware (56 %). Lime-tempered ware, with calcium remaining, was not found. Approximately one-fifth of the pottery was decorated (an equal proportion of both wares). The decoration consisted primarily of incised short lines and comb impressions. One relatively uncommon find, for the region, was a flint blade arrowhead, type A:2 (Becker 1950:75, cf. Fig. 18:37). Find Stratum, Cultural Layer and Features Artefacts were found in two test squares furthest to the south and in three test squares in the north eastern part of Kyrktorp subarea 8E, in part outside the route of the railway line (cf. Fig. 18:11). Recent artefacts were found associated with the agricultural field, which had been worked in modern times. No cultural layers were found in Kyrktorp subarea 8E, but there were occasional fire-cracked rocks in a test square in the northern part of the area. Artefacts were found in a large part of Kyrktorp subarea 8W (cf. Fig. 18:11). It was only the test squares situated at lowest altitudes, below m a.s.l. in the central and southern part of the area and under m a.s.l. in the northern part where no or few artefacts were found. Within the route of the railway line numerous artefacts were found everywhere except in the lowest parts, below m a.s.l. Recent artefacts were found in and north of the agricultural field. Within the field there were also prehistoric artefacts in the plough layer, and in the upper, western, part of the field, in undisturbed ground under the plough layer as well. There were no distinct differences within Kyrktorp subarea 8W in the distribution of quartz debitage. Bones were found in all parts. Most bones came from the hearth A20 and the pit A98. Pottery was relatively common in the test squares that lay at an altitude between 35 and 29 m a.s.l. In addition, a large amount of pottery was found in the north eastern part of the lower zone within the route of the railway line (c m a.s.l.). The test squares immediately to the west of this, nearer the slope, contained little pottery and there were thus two areas with pottery concentrations within the route of the railway line. In test squares at altitudes above 36 m a.s.l., especially the north western part, relatively little pottery was found. The frequency of pottery was high in the four test squares that contained features. There were no distinct spatial differences in the distribution of the two types of wares. No correlation between the different geological layers and the frequency of pottery in the test squares was observed. The stratigraphic distribution of pottery varied somewhat. Pottery was found in the humus layer (layer I), but the upper three artificial strata (0.15 metres) were usually without finds. Pottery was generally found down to A.S. 11, i.e metres below ground surface, in the undisturbed parts of the area. The maximum frequency of pottery generally occurred in A.S In a few test squares there were two stratigraphic ceramic maxima, with a smaller amount of pottery in the A.S. between. In the plough layer within the cultivated field the artefacts were stratigraphically scattered. A stratigraphic comparison of the ware types in Kyrktorp subarea 8W showed no significant differences either. Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden 13

14 In Kyrktorp subarea 8W dark coloured sand, interpreted as a cultural layer, was found in two of the test squares within the route of the railway line: one of them on the slope zone and the other in the upper zone. The dark discolorations were found in A.S No prehistoric features were found in Kyrktorp subarea 8E. Four units, interpreted as features, occurred in the test squares in Kyrktorp subarea 8W (see Table 18:9, chap. 25 and Fig. 18:5). The features consisted of three hearths and a pit and were found at metres below ground surface. One hearth (A20) was found in the test square at the highest altitude south of the route of the railway line and other hearths were in the upper and lower zones within the route of the railway line (A24 and A23, respectively). A pit (A98), which contained many finds, was found north of the agricultural field. Correlation of Phosphate Content and Finds In Kyrktorp subarea 8W the test squares with high phosphate values normally also contained a lot of pottery (cf. Fig. 18:11). This was not true, however, for the area in the higher, north western part, with a low frequency of pottery and high phosphate values. Low phosphate values occurred in occasional squares, situated at low altitudes, which had few or no artefacts. The exception was a test square centrally located in the lower zone within the route of the railway line, where phosphate values were low while the frequency of pottery was higher than the general tendency. There was also a certain connection between high phosphate values and features, but here the hearths had significantly lower phosphate values than the pit. For further studies of pottery, quartz, bone and phosphate values, see section 18:31 below. Within the area, samples were taken for trace element analysis from two test squares in subarea 8W, in order to compare values with samples from subareas 9B and 9A in a study of variation within the Kyrktorp Site (see pg. 25 and 188). Datings The artefacts were primarily of Stone Age types. The ware, form and decoration of the pottery compared most closely with Bagge s Fagervik IIItype, which is thought to date to the Middle Neolithic (Bagge 1951, cf. chap. 3A:3, 9). The flint arrow head was of Becker s A:2 type, which is assigned to the Middle Neolithic c BP (Becker 1951). Radiocarbon datings of charcoal from the hearths A23 and A24 gave dates to the Early Iron Age c BP (U-4495, U-4496, see Table 18:19). Summary and Interpretation Kyrktorp subareas 8W and 8E differed markedly in terms of artefact frequency and other traces. There were fewer indications of activities in 8E, with only scattered artefacts occurring. The phosphate values in the test squares were also low. Most of Kyrktorp subarea 8W showed traces of prehistoric use. It was only the parts situated at the lowest altitudes that did not have distinct 14 Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden

15 traces of cultural activities. In Kyrktorp subarea 8W many artefacts were found, mostly pottery, and cultural layers and features occurred as well. These traces were primarily concentrated in the central and southern parts of the area and in the north eastern part. The north western part of the area differed from the rest in terms of cultural indications. Pottery was almost entirely lacking and quartz debitage dominated while the phosphate values in several test squares were very high. Within the route of the railway line in Kyrktorp subarea 8W there were two find concentrations. These lay in the upper zone/slope zone and in the north eastern part of the lower zone. They were separated by a part with a lower frequency of finds in the north western part of the lower zone. The find concentrations at higher altitudes generally yielded high phosphate values, but the concentration at lower altitudes had only occasional high values. In the face of prospective development, we considered that the frequency of finds and the occurrence of cultural layers and features within the route of the railway line in Kyrktorp subarea 8W demanded further excavation of this subarea. On the other hand, we did not consider the site indications in Kyrktorp subarea 8E to be sufficiently extensive to warrant further excavations in this area. Area 9 Eva Olsson Local Topography As mentioned earlier, the route of the railway line ran east west across a mire complex in a low-lying area with present-day fens, here called the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen and the Kyrktorp Western Fen respectively. In a basin to the north a fen was situated at a higher altitude, the so called Kyrktorp Northern Fen (cf. Risberg 1991). The affected area consisted primarily of southern, south western and south eastern slopes down to the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen. Since the excavation area showed considerable topographic variation, it was divided into two subareas which were called Kyrktorp subarea 9B (to the east, connected to subarea 8W) and Kyrktorp subarea 9A (to the west) (cf. Fig. 18:4). In the eastern part of area 9 there was a low, west southwest slope down towards the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen (Fig. 18:10). This slope, here called Kyrktorp subarea 9B, was c metres (NE SW). It was bounded topographically by steep bedrock faces to the north and south and by the fen to the west. There were small passages between the rock walls and between the hill and the fen in the north, the south and the northwest (towards Kyrktorp subarea 9A). The upper part of Kyrktorp subarea 9B sloped relatively gently and evenly down towards the southwest, while the lower part immediately next to the fen was steeper. The route of the railway line area crossed the subarea in a north western south eastern direction. The exploitation area measured metres (WNW ESE) and lay at an altitude of m a.s.l. Northeast of the exploitation area was a saddle/pass, which extended c. 110 metres in a west east direction from Kyrktorp subarea 9B to Kyrktorp area 8 in the east. It was bounded on the north and south by steep hillsides encircled Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden 15

16 by bands of boulders and was 20 to 60 metres wide (narrowest in the west). The area s highest point (in the west) was at c. 50 m a.s.l. and from this point the ground sloped relatively steeply to the east (towards Kyrktorp subarea 8W) and more gently to the west (towards Kyrktorp subarea 9B). South of Kyrktorp subarea 9B a gentle west slope with some small plateaux extended c. 100 metres to the south. It was c. 40 metres wide and lay between the hill and the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen. The area ended in the southwest in a large flat ridge, which bounded the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen. A deep ditch has been dug through the ridge in recent times, possibly located in an older stream course. Furthest to the south southwest the area sloped steeply down towards Kyrktorp subarea 8W. The western part of area 9 consisted of a SSE slope below a rocky moraine with outcropping bedrock, named Kyrktorp subarea 9A (Fig. 18:10). The slope measured c metres (E W) and lay at an altitude of m a.s.l., the same altitude as subarea 9B. It flattened out to the south and west and ended in flat ground, with some low-lying areas in the south. The slope s boundaries in the north, northwest and northeast consisted of rock faces and in the south southeast of the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen. In the west there was no topographic boundary and in the northeast and east there were small passages, between the hill and the fen respectively, to the other areas (to the east, Kyrktorp subarea 9B). A c. 20 metres long and 5 metres wide band of boulders ran north south from the moraine ridge in the north across the middle part of Kyrktorp subarea 9A. During the excavation water ran from the higher Kyrktorp Northern Fen across the ground surface in the east and down to the Kyrktorp Eastern Fen. The route of the railway line ran directly across the slope. It was metres (NW SE) and lay at an altitude of 48 to 38 m a.s.l. It was bounded in the northwest by the exposed bedrock. The soil types in the eastern part of Kyrktorp area 9 consisted of glaciofluvial deposits and within Kyrktorp subarea 9A of till and glacial clay. Soils in the low-lying area consisted of glacial clay and fen peat (Möller in Möller & Stålhös 1969). According to the land surveying map (LMV, A34-26:1) the area had been forested for some time: no cultivated fields were recorded. Indications of recent land use were visible in the terrain. Across Kyrktorp subareas 9B and 9A a forest road ran in east westerly direction from Kyrktorp area 8. Several forest roads continued from this towards the small fissure valley in the north. In the eastern part of Kyrktorp area 9 there were two small, recently cultivated fields surrounded by ditches (c metres and metres large, respectively). A c. 9 metre large remnant of a charcoal stack and scattered recent pits, 1 2 metres in diameter also occurred in the area. Kyrktorp area 9 was covered with conifer forest, mostly pine on the slopes and spruce in the fen. Aims, Choices of Methods and Practical Procedure Our view after the special field survey and phosphate survey was that the high phosphate values in the north eastern part of Kyrktorp subarea 9B could indicate a Mesolithic settlement at an altitude of m a.s.l. Some of the artefacts, i.e. the pottery, also pointed to activities in the subarea at a later date. In Kyrktorp subarea 9A the indications of prehistoric activities were few: only scattered artefacts had been found and 16 Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden

17 the phosphate values were low. At the beginning of the test excavations, however, a feature resembling a stone setting (A1) was discovered here. During the test excavation phase an unregistered hill-fort was found on the hill between areas 8 and 9 that was given RAM no We regarded the Kyrktorp hill-fort primarily as an indication of Bronze and/or Iron Age remains in the area. The general aims before the test excavation were to test the extent of prehistoric remains in the area and obtain a preliminary understanding of the distribution and nature of the activity area. We regarded the thickness of the cultural layers and find strata, as well as qualitative and quantitative data on features and artefacts, as important information. In order to be able to assess the exploitation area in connection to its surroundings areas within as well as outside of the route of the railway line were tested. The test excavations were also related to the exploratory phosphate survey, in order to understand the variation of phosphate values in the area. In order to obtain information on artefacts (amounts and types) as well as their vertical distribution we excavated test squares in different topographical locations and in areas with different phosphate values. In order to clarify the horizontal distribution, we chose to strip the humus layer with machine, down to the find stratum in the test trenches and connected areas. The features found within test squares were excavated in order to gain a better understanding of their character. Features found in the trenches within the exploitation area were not excavated at this stage. With the presence of possible graves and low phosphate values, Kyrktorp subarea 9A was more difficult to interpret. Therefore a larger portion of Kyrktorp subarea 9A than Kyrktorp subarea 9B was stripped in this manner. The test excavation started by the digging of 29 test squares. They were located primarily in the exploitation area (8 300 m 2 ), but also at a maximum of 50 metres north and south of the route of the railway line (see Fig. 18:5). In addition, eleven test trenches were excavated and two areas connected to them were stripped with machine (see Appendix 18A). The stripped area covered c m 2 total. The area of test excavations comprised c. 17 % of the development area. The test squares (1 m 2 each) were excavated by hand in five centimetres thick artificial strata (A.S.) and the soil from certain A.S. was sieved (see Appendix 18A, working description). Artefacts, ecofacts and soil samples for phosphate and trace element analysis were collected from the test squares. The features were only excavated in the test squares at this stage and charcoal from the features was collected and determined as to species and internal age and radiocarbon dated. In connection with the test excavation, parts of the area were probed for soot or soil discolorations. In Kyrktorp subarea 9B we used an independent co-ordinate system (C/D) which was oriented at right angles to a probable prehistoric shore line. In other parts of area 9 the municipal grid was used. In Kyrktorp subarea 9B there were excavated 13 test squares in a c metres large area. The squares lay at an altitude of m a.s.l. and were primarily located on the southwest slope. Five of them lay within the probable recently cultivated field. In addition, four trenches were excavated with machine, one of which was excavated to a greater depth. In all, 250 m 2 were stripped within Kyrktorp subarea 9B. In the pass northeast of Kyrktorp subarea 9B nine test squares were excavated and two trenches Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden 17

18 were stripped by machine, one in the east and one in the west (at the transition to the slope of Kyrktorp 9B) for a total of c. 100 m 2. In the area south of Kyrktorp subarea 9B only two test squares were excavated. The five test squares in Kyrktorp subarea 9A were in a c metre large area at an altitude between c. 44 and 38 m a.s.l., situated at different slopes. Five trenches and two areas connected to them were stripped with machine. The areas were located partially around the presumed stone-setting (A1), and partially around the rocky band in the centre of the subarea. A total of m 2 was stripped in Kyrktorp subarea 9A. Results Ground Conditions Soil types, as determined in the field by the archaeologists, consisted primarily of silty sand in Kyrktorp subarea 9B. On the northern part of the slope there were strains of silt and in the eastern part of the pass, stony silt as well (possibly till). The humus layer in the area was around metres thick, thinnest in the pass ( metres) and thickest on parts of the slope. Soil types in Kyrktorp subarea 9A consisted primarily of silty till, covered with fine, gravelly sand. The humus layer was c metres thick. Categories of Finds A sample of the pottery, quartz debitage and all the flint and axes or axe fragments were recorded separately in accordance with aims for special analysis presented earlier (see chap. 6 9). The burnt bone, carbonised plant remains and samples of the charcoal pieces have been identified to species (see chap ). Pottery, quartz debitage and burnt bone were found primarily in Kyrktorp subarea 9B and adjacent areas (Table 18:2). In addition, occasional fragments of burnt clay, and flint, sandstone and other lithic debitage were found. Besides bone, the ecofacts consisted of hazelnut shells, cereal grains and other carbonised seeds and charcoal. Other objects were a well polished axe edge of greenstone (F247), a polishing stone of sandstone (F92) and a belt hook of iron (F217, see Fig. 18:121). The pottery mostly was of dense ware and was undecorated, of unidentified prehistoric type. The only possibly decorated sherd had a nail impression. Occasional undecorated sherds with porous ware also occurred. The quartz consisted primarily of flakes and waste while cores were lacking. The burnt clay found consisted of small fragments without impressions. Artefacts were few in Kyrktorp subarea 9A and consisted primarily of quartz debitage, including a bipolar core. The few small pottery sherds were of a difficult-to-identify, prehistoric type. The sherd found during the special survey in the north eastern part of Kyrktorp subarea 9A was also of dense ware, but thick, and may not be part of a vessel but belong to some other ceramic artefact. 18 Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden

19 Find Stratum, Cultural Layers and Features The type of artefacts and their frequency varied in area 9, showing a relatively heterogeneous picture (see Fig. 18:11 and Table 18:3). In Kyrktorp subarea 9B artefacts were found both during manual excavation of the test squares as well as during the excavation of the trenches with machine. In the majority of the test squares pottery, quartz debitage and burnt bone were found. Isolated fragments of burnt clay and flakes of local rock were also found. The amount of pottery was small, as a rule, with the exception of two squares in the north and east (maximum 65 g). The amount of quartz increased markedly at higher altitudes in the eastern part of the subarea, at the transition to the pass. The amount of burnt bone varied between 1 and 3 g per square. The axe edge and belt hook came from subarea 9B. One square, located in the south, was without finds. In the pass in the north eastern part of Kyrktorp subarea 9B two squares were without finds. Pottery was found in some squares with a concentration in the middle of the pass. Quartz was found in most test squares, but in relatively small amounts. Burnt bone occurred in many squares with a concentration (11 g) in a square to the east. The flint and cereal grains came from the squares with the pottery concentration, and the polishing stone was found in the square immediately east of these. The squares south of Kyrktorp subarea 9B had a relatively high frequency of burnt bone and quartz debitage but contained a smaller amount of pottery. In Kyrktorp subarea 9A artefacts were found during excavation of four of the five test squares. No artefacts were found during excavation of the trenches. Quartz occurred in many of the test squares while pottery and burnt clay only was found in one of the test squares outside the route of the railway line, in the north eastern part of the subarea. Compared to the eastern part of the area the number of artefacts from Kyrktorp subarea 9A appeared insignificant. Sherds from the southern test squares were smaller than sherds from other test squares (Table 18:4). No cultural layer was observed in Kyrktorp area 9 and no distinct stratigraphic distribution of different artefact types could be seen. The find stratum was thin and most often only isolated artefacts occurred in each A.S. In Kyrktorp subarea 9A there appeared to be no continuous find stratum, rather the finds were isolated and scattered. During the test excavations twelve features were found in the eastern part of Kyrktorp area 9. These consisted of a ditch (A21), eight hearths (A25 A26, A30 A33, A44, A56), and three pits (A27 A29). Two features were found during excavation of the test squares by hand (A25 A26), one during probing (A21) and the other nine during stripping of topsoil in trenches, with machine. The features were found in Kyrktorp subarea 9B, both in the slope and in the pass. In Kyrktorp subarea 9B two hearths were found on the upper part of the slope at c. 46 m a.s.l. and two hearths were found further down, at c. 40 m a.s.l. At the transition to the pass, at an altitude of m a.s.l., three hearths and three pits were found within a distance of c. 12 metres. In the central part of the pass, at c m a.s.l. a dark soil discoloration, A21, was found during soil probing, and, after excavation of some squares and stripping by machine, was interpreted as a ditch. Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden 19

20 In Kyrktorp subarea 9A three features were found during test excavation. During excavation of a test square a hearth (A22) and some pottery was found in the north eastern part of the area, outside of the route of the railway line. During machine stripping scattered fire-cracked rock was found associated with the band of boulders in the centre of the area and on its east edge a soot/fire-cracked rock concentration (A13) was found. In the western part another fire-cracked rock concentration (A9) was found. After clearing the stone setting-like feature was confirmed as a stone setting with a kerb, metres and 0.3 metres high (see Fig. 18). C. 2 metres northeast of this another stone concentration, which was interpreted as a possible grave, was found. Correlation of Phosphate Content and Finds During test excavation phosphate samples were taken in all of the test squares in areas 8 and 9. The purpose for this was to see if there was any visible correlation between the types and frequency of different artefacts, phosphate values and stratigraphy at the Kyrktorp Site. In the northeastern part of Kyrktorp subarea 9B, the pass, there were relatively high phosphate values and find/pottery frequencies. In the slope of Kyrktorp subarea 9B the picture is split: the absolute lowest phosphate values and one of the highest from this subarea lie in two adjacent squares in the centre of the area. Samples were also taken for trace element analysis from two test squares in subarea 9B and from two test squares in subarea 9A in order to compare values in a study of variation at the Kyrktorp Site. Datings Only a few artefacts, which could be relatively dated, were found in Kyrktorp area 9 during the test excavations. The quartz debitage and specially the bipolar core were interpreted as originating from Mesolithic activity. Most of the quartz artefacts came from m a.s.l. (some slightly lower) and this was seen as support for the hypothesis that there had been a Mesolithic shore bound site in Kyrktorp area 9. According to the shore displacement model compiled by Miller (in Brunnberg et al. 1985) activity in this part of the site can be dated to no earlier than the centuries immediately after 6000 BP and up to 5000 BP, i.e., the Late Mesolithic. The well-polished axe edge and the porous ware were interpreted as Middle Neolithic elements. The belt hook, some of the other pottery, the stone setting and the hill-fort were interpreted as remains of activities in the area during the Early Iron Age. Summary and Interpretation During the test excavations an unregistered hill-fort was found on the hill in the centre of the Kyrktorp Site. Prehistoric remains were also found throughout the entire eastern part of Kyrktorp area 9, close to the hill (i.e. Kyrktorp subarea 9B), and no clear boundary could be found. Remains of activities primarily dated to the Early Iron Age were also found across large parts and in different topographic locations. Features such as hearths and the ditch, as well as the hill-fort pointed to varied activities. 20 Södertörn Interdisciplinary Investigations of Stone Age Sites in Eastern Middle Sweden

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