1 Södra hamnen i Skärhamn Marinarkeologisk utredning Stenkyrka socken, Tjörns kommun Delia Ní Chíobháin Enqvist Bohusläns museum Rapport 2013 :17
3 Södra hamnen i Skärhamn Marinarkeologisk utredning Stenkyrka socken, Tjörns kommun Bohusläns museum Rapport 2013:17
4 ISSN Författare Delia Ní Chíobháin Enqvist Grafisk form, layout och teknisk redigering Gabriella Kalmar Omslagsbild Foto taget av Delia Ni Chiobhain Enqvist. Fotot visar Skärhamn från väst. Tryck Bording AB, Borås 2013 Kartor ur allmänt kartmaterial, Lantmäteriverket medgivande Bohusläns museum Museigatan 1 Box Uddevalla tel , fax
5 Content Svensk sammanfattning...6 Abstract...6 Background...6 Cultural environment and previous investigations...6 Method and results...8 Conclusion and recommendations...8 Literature...10 Tekniska och administrativa uppgifter...11 Appendices...12
6 4 Bohusläns museum Rapport 2013:17 Figur 1. Utsnitt ur Sverigekartan med platsen for utredningen markerad. Figure 1. Section of Sverigekartan with the area for investigation marked.
7 Södra hamnen i Skärhamn 5 Figur 2. Karta över utredningsområdet. Skala 1 : Figure 2. Map showing investigation area. Scale 1 :
8 6 Bohusläns museum Rapport 2013:17 Svensk sammanfattning På uppdrag av Tjörns kommun har Bohusläns museum under oktober månad 2012 genomfört en marinarkeologisk utredning av ett vattenområde i Södra hamnen i Skärhamn. Området uppgår till cirka kvadratmeter och omfattar ett undervattensgrund. Utredningen, som utfördes med anledning av ny detaljplan för Södra hamnen, bestod av geofysisk uppmätning samt besiktning av sonarindikationer. Inga fynd av arkeo logiskt intresse framkom vid utredningen och Bohusläns museum har därvidlag inget att erinra mot det planerade arbetsföretaget. Abstract In October 2012 Bohusläns museum conducted a marine archaeological survey on behalf of Tjörns kommun ( figure 1 ). The survey covered a body of water in Skärhamns southern harbour measuring circa 40,000 square meters ( figure 2 ). The proposed development involves zoning in certain areas of the South Harbour in Skärhamn. The investigation included geophysical measurement and inspection of the sonar indications. No finds of archaeological interest were located during the investigation and therefore Bohusläns museum have no objections to the proposed work. Background In October 2012 Bohusläns museum conducted a marine archaeological survey in an area of water in Skärhamns southern harbour on behalf of Tjörns kommun ( figure 3 ). The survey was conducted as part of a zoning plan for the harbour area which includes the expansion of the marina by building new piers to accommodate an additional 250 mooring places. A pier is to be added in the harbour which will also act as a breakwater for floating docks within. The study area included a circa meter wide water area ( 40,000 square meters ). The institution responsible for the survey was Bohusläns museum, in accordance with Länsstyrelsens decision , dnr The purpose of the archaeological investigation was to determine whether previously unknown archaeological and cultural remains existed within the area of the proposed development. The results of the investigation are intended to serve as a basis for Länsstyrelsens evaluation of the need for further archaeological work. Cultural environment and previous investigations For a town with a significant community Skärhamn has had a relatively short history. In 1845 Axel Emanuel Holmberg described Skärhamn as a pitiful fishing village of 16 households and that the people were mostly beggars ( Fjellsson, 2005 :45 ). However the various herring periods during the 1800s were important to the people of Tjörn and in particular for those in Skärhamn and Klädesholmen, where salting and canning respectively were major employers. By 1886 there were 35 salting facilities located between Tjörnekalv and Skärhamn and during the 1900s Skärhamn was a centre of fish processing. The catches of ling, tusk and other cod fish from the North Sea were salted or hung to dry to become lutefisk. Towards the end of the last herring period the herring fleet decreased and was comprised of mainly small, clinker-built yachts ( Bengtsson, 1998 :71 ). In 1832 a government regulation on cargo shipping, which had been in place nearly 200 years, was abolished. The regulation had given exclusive rights to the nobility for shipping along the coasts while farmers were only permitted to sail with produce from their farms or with goods for their own use. It was not until the second half of the 1800s that Tjörn came to dominate the freight industry in Bohuslän and specifically Skärhamn. While Skärhamn had previously been an insignificant town by 1908 it was home to 21 freighters according to the Swedish shipping list. By 1939 the fleet had grown to 66 vessels including 6 yachts, 8 cutters, 11 galeases and 36 schooners ( Fjellsson, 2005 : 45 ), leading Skärhamn to be known as Sweden s Mariehamn. One of the main exports was paving stones from local quarries that were sent to Germany, England and France. Other exports included timber and fish products. Returning freight consisted of brick from Norway as well as salt, coal and briquettes. The typical freighters in Tjörn were owned by individuals or a small group with the owners often working onboard ( Bengtsson, 1998 : ). In 2008 Bohusläns museum conducted a marine archaeological survey 0.6 km north of the study area in Bremsedammen/Toftösund. The remnants of 5 vessels of various types were located in close proximity ( Raä Stenkyrka 759, 760, 761, ). All vessels are built of wood, one is klinker built and two are carvel built and all are likely to have been abandoned.
9 Södra hamnen i Skärhamn 7 Figur 3. Karta över utredningsområdet. Skala 1 : Figure 3. Map showing investigation area. Scale 1 :
10 8 Bohusläns museum Rapport 2013:17 Method and results The investigation was conducted primarily with geophysical measure ment ( Bi laga 1 ). The instrument ( figure 4 ) used was a so-called scanning sonar, MS 1000 ( 675 khz ), manufactured by Kongsberg Mesotech. The measurement comprised a total of 18 scans with measured diameters of 30 and 75 meters. All measurements were recorded and interesting sonar indications inspected by divers. No finds or features of archaeological interest were revealed within the study area. Conclusion and recommendations Bohuslän Museum has conducted a marine archaeological survey of approximately 40, 000 square meters area of water in Skärhamns southern harbour. The study was conducted using geophysical scanning measurement and diving inspections. No finds or features of archaeological interest were revealed within the study area. Therefore Bohusläns museum has no archaeological objections to the proposed development.
11 Södra hamnen i Skärhamn 9 Figur 4. Sonaren innan den etableras på havsbottnen. Foto : Delia Ní Chíobháin Enqvist, Bohusläns museum. Figure 4. The MS 1000 scanning sonar prior to being placed in the water. Photo : Delia Ní Chíobháin Enqvist, Bohusläns museum.
12 10 Bohusläns museum Rapport 2013:17 Literature Bengtsson, A-C. & B. Wessel Tjörn : Framtid med tradition. Tjörns Kommun, Hyrrokkin AB. Göteborg. Fjellsson, S Det maritima arvet : Bohuslän. Föreningen Allmogebåtar, Göteborg.
13 Södra hamnen i Skärhamn 11 Tekniska och administrativa uppgifter Lst dnr : Västarvet dnr : VA Västarvet pnr : Län : Kommun : Socken : Fastighet : Västra Götaland Tjörn Stenkyrka Vattenområde Södra hamnen, Skärhamn hamn Läge : X , Y Meter över havet : max -10 meter Koordinatsystem : Sweref 99 TM Uppdragsgivare : Ansvarig institution : Projektledare : Fältpersonal : Tjörns kommun Bohusläns museum Delia Ní Chíobháin Enqvist Thomas Bergstrand, Matthew Gainsford, Delia Ní Chíobháin Enqvist Fältarbetstid : oktober 2012 Arkeologtimmar : 48 Undersökt yta : m² Arkiv : Fynd : Bohusläns museum arkiv Inga fynd omhändertogs
14 12 Bohusläns museum Rapport 2013:17 Appendices Bilaga 1. Geofysisk uppmätning av utredningsområdet. Skala 1 :2 000 Appendix 1. Geophysical measurement of survey area. Scale 1 :2 000